Why Communism Did Not Collapse

Author: Martin K. Dimitrov
Editor: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1107276799
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This volume brings together a distinguished group of scholars working to address the puzzling durability of communist autocracies in Eastern Europe and Asia, which are the longest-lasting type of non-democratic regime to emerge after World War I. The volume conceptualizes the communist universe as consisting of the ten regimes in Eastern Europe and Mongolia that eventually collapsed in 1989–91, and the five regimes that survived the fall of the Berlin Wall: China, Vietnam, Laos, North Korea and Cuba. The essays offer a theoretical argument that emphasizes the importance of institutional adaptations as a foundation of communist resilience. In particular, the contributors focus on four adaptations: of the economy, of ideology, of the mechanisms for inclusion of potential rivals, and of the institutions of vertical and horizontal accountability. The volume argues that when regimes are no longer able to implement adaptive change, contingent leadership choices and contagion dynamics make collapse more likely.

Why Communism Did Not Collapse

Author: Martin K. Dimitrov
Editor:
ISBN: 9781139565028
File Size: 76,55 MB
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Why Communism Did Not Collapse

Author: Martin K. Dimitrov
Editor: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1107035538
File Size: 23,90 MB
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Addresses the durability of communist autocracies in Eastern Europe and Asia, the longest-lasting type of non-democratic regime to emerge after World War I.

The Collapse Of State Socialism

Author: Bartłomiej Kamiński
Editor:
ISBN: 9780691078809
File Size: 19,25 MB
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Does the abrupt collapse of communist regimes in Eastern Europe arise only from errors in implementing the policy of state socialism, leaving the concept itself still a potentially valid one? Bartlomiej Kaminski argues to the contrary: state socialism is a fundamentally defective idea that was well carried out, enabling it to exist until its accumulated shortcomings made its survival extremely difficult. How did the flawed state-socialist system endure for so long? Why is it failing now? In answering these questions, Kaminski, who is both an economist and a political analyst, proposes a general theory and then applies it to the case of Poland. Contending that the breakdown of state socialism results from symbiosis of the state and the economy, the book describes how communist governments searched for tools that would replace the market mechanism and the rule of law. Doomed in advance by the absence of autonomy and competition, this search generated new crises by undermining the state's capacity to suppress individual interests and to direct the economy. Originally published in 1991. The Princeton Legacy Library uses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback and hardcover editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase access to the rich scholarly heritage found in the thousands of books published by Princeton University Press since its founding in 1905.

Habits Of The Balkan Heart

Author: Stjepan G. Metrovic
Editor: Texas A&M University Press
ISBN: 9780890965931
File Size: 79,28 MB
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Almost as soon as Communism fell in Eastern Europe in 1989, Western politicians and intellectuals concluded that the West had "won" the Cold War and that liberal democracy had triumphed over authoritarianism in the world. Euphoria spread with the expectation of a New World Order. Within months, the giddy optimism began to fade, especially in the face of what soon became a brutal war in former Yugoslavia. Why did Serbia choose to replicate many of Germany's methods and aims from World Wars I and II, including ethnic cleansing (read "genocide") and a campaign to establish a Greater Serbia? Sociologist Stjepan Meštrovic, writing with Slaven Letica and Miroslav Goreta, argues that the social and political character of the Dinaric herdsmen--which dominates Serbian culture and politics, even though it is found in all Balkan nations--accounts for the form Communism took there, the fall of Communism, and the savagery and brutality of the post-Communist war. With carefully reasoned analysis, the authors show how sociological theories of social character--propounded by such thinkers as de Tocqueville, Veblen, and Bellah--can shed light on the conflicts in the Balkans, which, according to conventional wisdom, were not supposed to occur when Communism fell. They demonstrate that ancient, traditional ethnic, social, and nationalistic tendencies--"habits of the heart"--of the various people of the Balkans have taken precedence over pressures for democracy in the political and cultural vacuum left by the end of Communism in the region. Unfortunately, the difficulties in the Balkans will persist for a long time to come, and similar conflicts could break out in the former Soviet Union. This thought-provoking book has much new to say about the causes of such ethnic and class conflicts in the region, and the feasibility of policies for dealing with these sores. If democracy is to be achieved in post-Communist East Europe, the authors argue, it must be based on the "good" habits of the heart that coexist there with "bad" or authoritarian social character.

Revolution In East Central Europe

Author: David S Mason
Editor: Routledge
ISBN: 1000310035
File Size: 64,56 MB
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The year 1989 marked a turning point in world history, a watershed year of unprecedented drama and political significance. No matter how one looks at those events–as the fall of communism, the democratization of Eastern Europe, or the end of the cold war–it is important to understand how the world travelled the distance of time, space, and ideology to arrive at the Berlin Wall and tear it down. David Mason provides that understanding in a concise synthesis of history, politics, economics, sociology, literature, philosophy, and popular, as well as traditional, culture. He shows how all these elements combined to yield the year that effectively closed the twentieth century–and promised to launch the new century on a hopeful note. Starting with Poland's elections in June 1989, the countries of then-communist Eastern Europe one by one revolutionized their governments and their polities; Hungary opened its borders to the West, East Germany rushed through, Czechoslovakia elected Vaclav Havel president, Bulgaria changed both party and leadership, and Romania executed Ceausescu. Although Gorbachev enabled many of these changes, he did not cause them. The illumination of the complex symbiosis between dynamics in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union is one of the greatest contributions this book makes. With undercurrents emphasizing the power of ideas, the spirit of youth, and the multifaceted force of culture and ethnicity, Mason takes the reader far beyond the events of change and into their impetus and outcomes. He applies theories of social movements, democratization, and economic transition with an even hand, showing the interaction of their effects not only regionally but worldwide. The concluding chapter puts the revolutions in Eastern Europe into international perspective and highlights their impact on East-West relations, security alliances, and economic integration. Mason discusses the European Community, the United States and the Soviet Union, and the Third World in relation to the new East-Central European configuration. Using delightful and provocative cartoons from Eastern European and Soviet presses, interesting photos, valuable tables of data, and illuminating figures, Mason emphasizes important points about the role of nationalism, ethnicity, public opinion, and harsh economic reality in the revolutionary process.

Democracy And Post Communism

Author: Graeme Gill
Editor: Routledge
ISBN: 1134485565
File Size: 53,46 MB
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The collapse of communism was widely heralded as the dawn of democracy across the former Soviet region. However, the political outcome has been much less uniform. The post-communist states have developed political systems from democracy to dictatorship. Using examples and empirical data collected from twenty-six former Soviet states, Graeme Gill provides a detailed comparative analysis of the core issues of regime change, the creation of civil society, economic reform and the changing nature of post-communism. Within these individual cases, it becomes clear that political outcomes have not been arbitrary, but directly reflect the circumstances surrounding the birth of independence. Students of Comparative Politics, International Relations and Russian and Post-Soviet Studies should find this book essential reading.

Triggering Communism S Collapse

Author: Marjorie Castle
Editor: Rowman & Littlefield
ISBN: 9780742525153
File Size: 36,60 MB
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Why was Poland the first communist regime to collapse? And yet why do many Poles see their peaceful transition away from communist rule as a sham, rather than a victory? To find answers to these questions Triggering Communism's Collapse examines the political dynamics of the Polish transition-a transition that stripped the communist party of its control of the government, thrust an opposition leader into the premiership, and set off the world-changing series of communist collapses in the Soviet Bloc. At a time when Poland's economy was deteriorating, the workers were striking, and the Soviets were vacillating, both the Polish communist regime and the Solidarity-led opposition formulated certain expectations and acted upon them. Both sides' expectations soon turned out to be mistaken, but the resulting choices shaped the course of events in surprising ways. Through elite interviews and archival records, Castle shows how mistaken expectations resulted in a sudden transfer of power away from the communist elite and created a new political arena full of surprises. Drastic changes in the capabilities of key political actors had radically altered the implications of negotiated rules. Yet these rules went on to change the political landscape itself.

The Walls Came Tumbling Down

Author: Gale Stokes
Editor: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199879192
File Size: 53,60 MB
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Gale Stokes' The Walls Came Tumbling Down has been one of the standard interpretations of the East European revolutions of 1989 for many years. It offers a sweeping yet vivid narrative of the two decades of developments that led from the Prague Spring of 1968 to the collapse of communism in 1989. Highlights of that narrative include, among other things, discussions of Solidarity and civil society in Poland, Charter 77 and the Velvet Revolution in Czechoslovakia, and the bizarre regime of Romania's Nikolae Ceausescu and his violent downfall. In this second edition, now appropriately subtitled Collapse and Rebirth in Eastern Europe, Stokes not only has revised these portions of the book in the light of recent scholarship, but has added three new chapters covering the post-communist period, including analyses of the unification of Germany and the collapse of the Soviet Union, narratives of the admission of many of the countries of the region to the European Union, and discussion of the unfortunate outcomes of the Wars of Yugoslav Succession in the Western Balkans.

Legacies Of The Collapse Of Marxism

Author: John Hampton Moore
Editor: University Press of America
ISBN:
File Size: 60,46 MB
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A penetrating study by prominent authors of the aftermath of the collapse of Marxism. Rudolf Andorka discusses the causes of the collapse of the Communist system; Francis Kukuyama looks at the varieties of Russian nationalism; Craig Calhoun addresses the interaction of nationalism, civil society, and democracy; James M. Buchanan analyzes the implications for economies in transition of the asymmetrical reciprocity in market exchange; Robert Conquest discusses academe and the Soviet myth; and Seymour Martin Lipset concludes with the question of why we did not anticipate the failure of Communism.

The Collapse Of Communism

Author: Stewart Ross
Editor: Heinemann Educational Publishers
ISBN: 9780431170657
File Size: 14,92 MB
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Uses a variety of sources, by people who were there, to give an insight into a particular period of history.

Russian Cultural Anthropology After The Collapse Of Communism

Author: A. K. Baĭburin
Editor: Routledge
ISBN: 041569504X
File Size: 34,78 MB
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In Soviet times, anthropologists in the Soviet Union were closely involved in the state's work of nation building. They helped define official nationalities, and gathered material about traditional customs and suitably heroic folklore, whilst at the same time refraining from work on the reality of contemporary Soviet life. Since the end of the Soviet Union anthropology in Russia has been transformed. International research standards have been adopted, and the focus of research has shifted to include urban culture and difficult subjects, such as xenophobia. However, this transformation has been, and continues to be, controversial, with, for example, strongly contested debates about the relevance of Western anthropology and cultural theory to post-Soviet reality. This book presents an overview of how anthropology in Russia has changed since Soviet times, and showcases examples of important Russian anthropological work. As such, the book will be of great interest not just to Russian specialists, but also to anthropologists more widely, and to all those interested in the way academic study is related to prevailing political and social conditions.

Comrades No More

Author: Renee De Nevers
Editor: MIT Press
ISBN: 9780262262415
File Size: 39,30 MB
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In 1989, Soviet control over Eastern Europe ended when the communist regimes of the Warsaw Pact collapsed. These momentous and largely bloodless events set the stage for the end of the Cold War and ushered in a new era in international politics. Why did communism collapse relatively peacefully in Eastern Europe? Why did these changes occur in 1989, after more than four decades of communist rule? Why did this upheaval happen almost simultaneously in most of the Warsaw Pact? In Comrades No More, Renee de Nevers examines how internal and external factors interacted in the collapse of East European communism. She argues that Gorbachev's reforms in the Soviet Union were necessary to start the process of political change in Eastern Europe, but domestic factors in each communist state determined when and how each country abandoned communism. A "demonstration effect" emerged as Hungary and Poland introduced reforms and showed that Moscow would not intervene to prevent political and economic changes.De Nevers analyzes the process of change in Hungary, Poland, Bulgaria, the German Democratic Republic, Czechoslovakia, and Romania. She traces the pattern of reform in each country and shows how these patterns influenced their postcommunist political evolution.

Democracy And The Market

Author: Adam Przeworski
Editor: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521423359
File Size: 26,11 MB
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The quest for freedom has triggered a worldwide movement toward political democracy and economic rationality. This major study analyzes recent events in Eastern Europe and Latin America, focusing on transitions to democracy and market-oriented economic reform.

Communism And The Emergence Of Democracy

Author: Harald Wydra
Editor: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1139462180
File Size: 71,86 MB
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Before democracy becomes an institutionalised form of political authority, the rupture with authoritarian forms of power causes deep uncertainty about power and outcomes. This 2007 book connects the study of democratisation in eastern Europe and Russia to the emergence and crisis of communism. Wydra argues that the communist past is not simply a legacy but needs to be seen as a social organism in gestation, where critical events produce new expectations, memories and symbols that influence meanings of democracy. By examining a series of pivotal historical events, he shows that democratisation is not just a matter of institutional design, but rather a matter of consciousness and leadership under conditions of extreme and traumatic incivility. Rather than adopting the opposition between non-democratic and democratic, Wydra argues that the communist experience must be central to the study of the emergence and nature of democracy in (post-) communist countries.

Marxism And Communism

Author: Martin Krygier
Editor: Rodopi
ISBN: 9789051836172
File Size: 52,41 MB
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Italy Europe The Left

Author: Vassilis Fouskas
Editor: Routledge
ISBN:
File Size: 55,46 MB
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This is a study of the relationship between the Italian left, the political system of Italy and the process of European integration during the 1980s and 1990s. The book argues and concludes that the transformation of Italian communism was chiefly due to the process of European integration, and not the collapse of Eastern regimes. It concludes that the crisis of the first Italian Republic has a multicausal foundation and that it is not reducible to the economic malaise of the country.

Political Will And Personal Belief

Author: Paul Hollander
Editor: Yale University Press
ISBN: 9780300144208
File Size: 54,77 MB
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The unexpected collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 signaled the demise of a political and economic system that was widely perceived as durable, the preeminent rival to that of the United States. Less conspicuous than the momentous political transformations were the altered beliefs, aspirations, and illusions of the individuals who had maintained and led that system. In this original interpretation the eminent sociologist Paul Hollander focuses on the human aspects of the failure of Soviet communism. He examines how members of the Soviet political elite, leaders in communist Czechoslovakia and Hungary, high-ranking officials in agencies of control and coercion, and distinguished defectors and exiles experienced the erosion of ideals that undermined the political system they had once believed in.Hollander analyzes an array of autobiographical and biographical writings, journalistic accounts, and scholarly interpretations of the unraveling of Soviet communism. The Soviet Union fell apart not merely because of severe economic shortcomings, Hollander argues, but because of the double impact of the conflict between official ideals and practical realities and an eroding sense of legitimacy in the highest echelons. In his conclusion, the author considers how Marxist theory both shaped and undermined the system.

The Collapse Of Communist Power In Poland

Author: Jacqueline Hayden
Editor: Routledge
ISBN: 1134208006
File Size: 45,96 MB
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Based on extensive original research, including interviews with key participants, this book investigates the sudden and unforeseen collapse of communist power in Poland in 1989. It sets out the sequence of events, and examines the strategies of the various political groupings prior to the partially free election of June 1989. This volume argues that the specific negotiating strategies adopted by the communist party representatives in the Round Table discussions before the elections was a key factor in communism’s collapse. The book shows that on many occasions, PZPR decision-makers ignored expert advice, and many Round Table bargains went against the party’s best interests. Using in-depth interviews with major party players, including General Jaruzelski, General Kiszczak and Mieczyslaw Rakowski, as well as Solidarity advisors such as Adam Michnik, the text provides a unique source of first-hand accounts of Poland’s revolutionary drama.

Japan

Author: Brian Reading
Editor: Harpercollins
ISBN:
File Size: 26,32 MB
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Behind the overwhelming economic and material success of Japan and the Japanese lies a hara-kiri economy, society and political system set to self-destruct. This timely, probing and provocative report on the Japanese miracle describes the looming crisis the country faces in the 1990s. Three rival politico-economic systems have dominated the postwar world: Communist dictatorship, capitalist democracy and neofeudal Japanese corporatism. After the war the Japanese people had nothing. Today they are among the wealthiest in the world. Japan's unique one-party system has produced an economic miracle, and the Japanese success is envied by all. Yet it is deeply flawed. Japan's political economy is unstable. Japan has become a nation of wealth, unfairly obtained and unequally shared, run by venal politicians for the benefit of their corrupt paymasters. Though Japan is materially rich, the quality of life for ordinary Japanese remains depressingly poor. Like Russians, Czechs, Hungarians and Poles, the Japanese recognise the superiority of free-market democracy. They are clamouring for reform. But reform requires that wealth be redistributed from the one-third who own everything to the two-thirds who own nothing. Consensus politics cannot deliver this. It is doomed. The factious ruling party is collapsing in a welter of scandal. Confrontational politics will follow, leading to civil disorder and violence. The country faces its worst economic and political crisis since the war. Its collapse will not be as cataclysmic as that of Communism. Nevertheless, Japan has entered a decade of turbulence.