The Making Of Copernicus

Author: Wolfgang Neuber
Editor: BRILL
ISBN: 9004281126
File Size: 52,35 MB
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The volume articles examine exemplarily how some of the Copernicus myths came about and if they could hold their ground. They investigate methodological, institutional, textual and visual transformations of the Copernican doctrine and the topical, rhetorical and literary transformations of the historical person of Copernicus respectively.

Nicolaus Copernicus

Author: Owen Gingerich
Editor: OUP USA
ISBN: 0195161734
File Size: 26,81 MB
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Presents the life and accomplishments of the man considered the "father of the Scientific Revolution" due to his theory that the sun is the center of the solar system and the planets revolve around it.

Islamic Science And The Making Of The European Renaissance

Author: George Saliba
Editor: MIT Press
ISBN: 026226112X
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The rise and fall of the Islamic scientific tradition, and the relationship of Islamic science to European science during the Renaissance. The Islamic scientific tradition has been described many times in accounts of Islamic civilization and general histories of science, with most authors tracing its beginnings to the appropriation of ideas from other ancient civilizations—the Greeks in particular. In this thought-provoking and original book, George Saliba argues that, contrary to the generally accepted view, the foundations of Islamic scientific thought were laid well before Greek sources were formally translated into Arabic in the ninth century. Drawing on an account by the tenth-century intellectual historian Ibn al-Naidm that is ignored by most modern scholars, Saliba suggests that early translations from mainly Persian and Greek sources outlining elementary scientific ideas for the use of government departments were the impetus for the development of the Islamic scientific tradition. He argues further that there was an organic relationship between the Islamic scientific thought that developed in the later centuries and the science that came into being in Europe during the Renaissance. Saliba outlines the conventional accounts of Islamic science, then discusses their shortcomings and proposes an alternate narrative. Using astronomy as a template for tracing the progress of science in Islamic civilization, Saliba demonstrates the originality of Islamic scientific thought. He details the innovations (including new mathematical tools) made by the Islamic astronomers from the thirteenth to sixteenth centuries, and offers evidence that Copernicus could have known of and drawn on their work. Rather than viewing the rise and fall of Islamic science from the often-narrated perspectives of politics and religion, Saliba focuses on the scientific production itself and the complex social, economic, and intellectual conditions that made it possible.

The Sun Centered Universe And Nicolaus Copernicus

Author: Fred Bortz
Editor: The Rosen Publishing Group, Inc
ISBN: 147771801X
File Size: 69,75 MB
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Before Copernicus, educated people believed without a doubt that the sun and the planets traveled around Earth. Through his brilliant thinking and years of careful observation and documentation, Copernicus turned this idea on its head, making the astonishing assertion that Earth revolves around the sun. In this engaging biography, the author traces the great scientist's life and influences in Europe in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, including his work in the Roman Catholic Church. The title is an excellent resource for Common Core anchor standard 3: analyzing the development of individuals, events, and ideas.

The Customer Copernicus

Author: Charlie Dawson
Editor: Routledge
ISBN: 1000365034
File Size: 64,71 MB
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Some companies are great for customers – not only do they care but they change whole markets to work better for the customers they serve. Think of Amazon, easyJet and Sky. They make things easier and improve what really matters – obvious, surely? They have also enjoyed huge business success, growing and making plenty of money. The Customer Copernicus answers the question that follows – if it’s obvious and attractive why is it so rare? And then it answers a second question, because Tesco, O2 and Wells Fargo were like this once. Why, having mastered it, would you ever stop? Because all three did, and two ended up in court. The Customer Copernicus explains how to become and how to stay customer-led. Essential reading for leaders and teams who want their organisations to stay competitive by developing a more purposeful and innovative culture.

Nicolaus Copernicus

Author: Nandini Saraf
Editor: Prabhat Prakashan
ISBN: 818430434X
File Size: 71,26 MB
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Nicolaus Copernicus is considered the founder of modern astronomy for proving that the solar system is heliocentric, or organized around the Sun. By making scientific observations and mathematical calculations to support this idea, Copernicus also provided a model for the modern scientific method (formulating, testing, and proving a theory). In this way, Copernicus helped to overthrow the popular reliance on the unproven, and often incorrect, ideas of ancient Greek philosophers that had dominated scientific thought until his time. In honor of Copernicus's place in scientific history, a statue was raised near the house where he was born by French leader Napoleon Bonaparte (1769-1821) in 1807.

Extraordinary Astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus

Author: Avneet Kumar
Editor:
ISBN:
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We had tried to write this book in a very short and concise manner and in a very customer friendly fonts so that it can very easily be understandable by everyone. Nicolaus Copernicus (19 February 1473 - 24 May 1543) was a Renaissance-era mathematician and astronomer, who formulated a model of the universe that placed the Sun rather than Earth at the center of the universe, in all likelihood independently of Aristarchus of Samos, who had formulated such a model some eighteen centuries earlier.The publication of Copernicus' model in his book De revolutionist orbium coelestium (On the Revolutions of the Celestial Spheres), just before his death in 1543, was a major event in the history of science, triggering the Copernican Revolution and making a pioneering contribution to the Scientific Revolution.Copernicus was born and died in Royal Prussia, a region that had been part of the Kingdom of Poland since 1466. A polyglot and polymath, he obtained a doctorate in canon law and was also a mathematician, astronomer, physician, classics scholar, translator, governor, diplomat, and economist. In 1517 he derived a quantity theory of money--a key concept in economics--and in 1519 he formulated an economic principle that later came to be called Gresham's law.Having completed all his studies in Italy, 30-year-old Copernicus returned to Warmia, where he would live out the remaining 40 years of his life, apart from brief journeys to Kraków and to nearby Prussian cities: Toruń (Thorn), Gdańsk (Danzig), Elblag (Elbing), Grudziadz (Graudenz), Malbork (Marienburg), Königsberg (Królewiec).The Prince-Bishopric of Warmia enjoyed substantial autonomy, with its own diet (parliament) and monetary unit (the same as in the other parts of Royal Prussia) and treasury.Copernicus was his uncle's secretary and physician from 1503 to 1510 (or perhaps till his uncle's death on 29 March 1512) and resided in the Bishop's castle at Lidzbark (Heilsberg), where he began work on his heliocentric theory. In his official capacity, he took part in nearly all his uncle's political, ecclesiastic, and administrative-economic duties. From the beginning of 1504, Copernicus accompanied Watzenrode to sessions of the Royal Prussian diet held at Malbork and Elbląg and, write Dobrzycki and Hajdukiewicz, "participated... in all the more important events in the complex diplomatic game that ambitious politician and statesman played in defense of the particular interests of Prussia and Warmia, between hostility to the [Teutonic] Order and loyalty to the Polish Crown."In 1504-12 Copernicus made numerous journeys as part of his uncle's retinue--in 1504, to Torun and Gdańsk, to a session of the Royal Prussian Council in the presence of Poland's King Alexander Jagiellon; to sessions of the Prussian diet at Malbork (1506), Elbląg (1507) and Sztum (Stuhm) (1512); and he may have attended a Poznań (Posen) session (1510) and the coronation of Poland's King Sigismund I the Old in Kraków (1507). Watzenrode's itinerary suggests that in spring 1509 Copernicus may have attended the Kraków Sejm.It was probably on the latter occasion, in Kraków, that Copernicus submitted for printing at Jan Haller's press his translation, from Greek to Latin, of a collection, by the 7th-century Byzantine historian Theophylact Simocatta, of 85 brief poems called Epistles, or letters, supposed to have passed between various characters in a Greek story. They are of three kinds--"moral," offering advice on how people should live; "pastoral", giving little pictures of shepherd life; and "amorous", comprising love poems. They are arranged to follow one another in a regular rotation of subjects. Copernicus had translated the Greek verses into Latin prose, and he now published his version as Theophilacti scolastici Simocati epistolae morales, rurales et amatoriae interpretatione Latina, which he dedicated to his uncle in gratitude for all the benefits he had received from him.

Music And The Making Of Modern Science

Author: Peter Pesic
Editor: MIT Press
ISBN: 0262027275
File Size: 39,54 MB
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In the natural science of ancient Greece, music formed the meeting place between numbers and perception; for the next two millennia, Pesic tells us in Music and the Making of Modern Science, "liberal education" connected music with arithmetic, geometry, and astronomy within a fourfold study, the quadrivium. Peter Pesic argues provocatively that music has had a formative effect on the development of modern science -- that music has been not just a charming accompaniment to thought but a conceptual force in its own right. Pesic explores a series of episodes in which music influenced science, moments in which prior developments in music arguably affected subsequent aspects of natural science. He describes encounters between harmony and fifteenth-century cosmological controversies, between musical initiatives and irrational numbers, between vibrating bodies and the emergent electromagnetism. He offers lively accounts of how Newton applied the musical scale to define the colors in the spectrum; how Euler and others applied musical ideas to develop the wave theory of light; and how a harmonium prepared Max Planck to find a quantum theory that reengaged the mathematics of vibration. Taken together, these cases document the peculiar power of music -- its autonomous force as a stream of experience, capable of stimulating insights different from those mediated by the verbal and the visual. An innovative e-book edition available for iOS devices will allow sound examples to be played by a touch and shows the score in a moving line.

Reason And Wonder A Copernican Revolution In Science And Spirit

Author: Dave Pruett
Editor: ABC-CLIO
ISBN: 0313399204
File Size: 74,37 MB
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In this enlightening and provocative exploration, Dave Pruett sets out a revolutionary new understanding of our place in the universe, one that reconciles the rational demands of science with the deeper tugs of spirituality.

Nicolaus Copernicus

Author: Barbara A. Somervill
Editor: Capstone
ISBN: 9780756508128
File Size: 62,81 MB
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Discusses the life and career of the sixteenth-century Polish astronomer who was the first man to assert, in print, the theory that the Earth moves around the sun.

Nicolaus Copernicus

Author: Robert Stawell Ball, Sir
Editor:
ISBN: 9781988357300
File Size: 26,16 MB
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Nicolaus Copernicus (February 19, 1473 - May 24, 1543) was a Polish Renaissance mathematician and astronomer who formulated a model of the universe that placed the Sun rather than the Earth at the center of the universe. The publication of this model in his book De revolutionibus orbium coelestium (On the Revolutions of the Celestial Spheres) just before his death in 1543 is considered a major event in the history of science, triggering the Copernican Revolution and making an important contribution to the Scientific Revolution.

Asia In The Making Of Europe Volume Ii

Author: Donald F. Lach
Editor: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 9780226467139
File Size: 50,83 MB
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Praised for its scope and depth, Asia in the Making of Europe is the first comprehensive study of Asian influences on Western culture. For volumes I and II, the author has sifted through virtually every European reference to Asia published in the sixteenth-century; he surveys a vast array of writings describing Asian life and society, the images of Asia that emerge from those writings, and, in turn, the reflections of those images in European literature and art. This monumental achievement reveals profound and pervasive influences of Asian societies on developing Western culture; in doing so, it provides a perspective necessary for a balanced view of world history. Volume I: The Century of Discovery brings together "everything that a European could know of India, Southeast Asia, China, and Japan, from printed books, missionary reports, traders' accounts and maps" (The New York Review of Books). Volume II: A Century of Wonder examines the influence of that vast new body of information about Asia on the arts, institutions, literatures, and ideas of sixteenth-century Europe.

The Eye Of Heaven

Author: Owen Gingerich
Editor: American Institute of Physics
ISBN:
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Science history at its best is passionate, original, and controversial - a perfect description of the work of Owen Gingerich. Physicist, historian of science, and tireless sleuth, Gingerich is internationally respected for his rigorous scholarship and well-known for his challenging views. His work has had a profound effect on the history of science, disputing prevalent notions of the Copernican revolution, revising interpretations of Kepler's work, and redefining Newton. The Eye of Heaven: Ptolemy, Copernicus, Kepler is a provocative Gingerich collection, focusing on the transformation of astronomy from Ptolemy's geocentrism to Kepler's remolding of Copernican cosmology. In 25 bracing essays, it uncovers the subtle and surprising ways in which raw data, interpretation, and creativity propel science. Several of Gingerich's favorite themes are illuminated: the importance of historical context, the careful examination of scientific work habits, and the role of creativity and artistry in science. Did Ptolemy fake his data or merely, as many other scientists have done, mold them into a consistent form without intent to deceive? Was Copernicus's heliocentrism an inevitable response to crisis-ridden Ptolemaic cosmology, or was it an original, unexpected leap of imagination? Are scientific discoveries merely the unveiling of physical reality, or are they more akin to artists' creativity? The Eye of Heaven: Ptolemy, Copernicus, Kepler includes Gingerich's influential essay on crisis versus aesthetic in the Copernican revolution, a thought-provoking look at Newton's Principia as a work of art, and one of Gingerich's most popular pieces, "The Computer versus Kepler," in which an IBM 7094 handles in seconds a computational problem that occupied the German astronomer for years. Here is science history at its best: astute detective work that demolishes popular notions, sensitivity to context and personality, meticulous scholarship, and elegant writing. In short, classic Gingerich.

The Scientific World Of Copernicus

Author: B. Biékowska
Editor: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401026165
File Size: 59,84 MB
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On February 19, 1973, five centuries have elapsed since the birth of Nicolaus Coperni cus - the greatest astronomer of the Renaissance period - who rediscovered for us the heliocentric model of the solar system, and documented it by his life's work in such a manner as to make its concept a permanent property of mankind. The life of Copernicus, extending from 19 February 1473 to his death on 24 May 1543, was not too rich in adventures or biographical facts. Born in Toruti from a family of Polish burghers, he received his first university training in Cracow between 1491-1494. From Cracow he proceeded to Italy to spend the years between 1496-1503 at the Universities of Bologna, Padua and Ferrara - with occasional visits to Rom- in preparation for an ecclesiastical career. When Bishop Watzenrode - his patron and maternal uncle - could no longer extend his leave, Copernicus returned to Poland in 1503 to enter the service of the church establishment, which soon led to a canonry at the Frombork (Frauenburg) Cathedral in Warmia. And there - in the northern mists not far from the Baltic shores - in a land so different in climate from the sunny Italy of his youth - he was destined to spend the rest of his life.

An Annotated Census Of Copernicus De Revolutionibus Nuremberg 1543 And Basel 1566

Author: Owen Gingerich
Editor: Brill Academic Pub
ISBN: 9789004114661
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Appendices list the other works bound with De revolutionibus, and prices at auction going back to the 18th century."--BOOK JACKET.

Copernicus Secret

Author: Jack Repcheck
Editor: Simon and Schuster
ISBN: 074328951X
File Size: 39,14 MB
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Traces the story of the enigmatic scientist while revealing how he was able to make his pivotal discovery about how the earth revolves around the sun in spite of limited technology and the obscure belief systems of his contemporaries, in an account that traces the crucial role played by Copernicus's associate, Georg Joachim Rheticus. 35,000 first printing.

Copernicus And Earth Observation In Support Of Eu Policies

Author:
Editor:
ISBN: 9789276145592
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This study examines the extent to which Copernicus supports policymaking in the European Commission, all while assessing user perspectives for increased uptake. Alternative forms of Earth observation data and information that supports EU decision making was considered. A substantial amount of use of the services comes from policies that monitor land-use, climatic and environmental conditions, a trend expected to increase in light of anticipated demands by the new Common Agricultural Policy and the Land Use, Land-Use Change and Forestry Regulation. Information of the Climate Change Service on optimal land-use that targets specific human activities which harnesses the beneficial opportunities of climate change provides policy makers with a new set of adaptation measures. Several lines of action have been identified to improve uptake: Increasing engagement within the policy Directorates- General; fostering feedback loops between end-users and Copernicus services; increasing communication, information and training; setting standards and guaranteeing quality controls; enabling full integration of different datasets.

Polish Music

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Editor:
ISBN:
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Immunology The Making Of A Modern Science

Author: Richard B. Gallagher
Editor: Elsevier
ISBN: 0080534538
File Size: 47,78 MB
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Immunology has progressed in spectacular fashion in the last four decades. Studies of the response to infectious agents, transplanted organs and tumours (and the potential to manipulate that response), and the study of the immune system as a model system in molecular cell biology have yielded dramatic advances in our understanding of the mechanisms of immunity. The field has attracted a continuous stream of the brightest theoretical and experimental scientists for over forty years. This book conveys the philosophies and approaches of sixteen of the most successful of these scientists in the form of a series of narratives that describe the circumstances that led to a major discovery in immunology. Contributors not only recall an exciting period of research that helped shape modern immunology, but set it in the personal context of place and time. Jacques Miller, for example, describes the discovery of the function of the thymus, Rolf Zinkernagel explains how experiments on viral immunity led to the discovery of MHC restriction and Susumu Tonegawa provides an account of how antibody gene structure was defined. Medically-important discoveries include descriptions of early studies of autoimmunity by Noel Rose and of tumour immunology by George and Eva Klein. Far from being a collection of disinterested, historical accounts, this volume comprises a series of passionately biographical, personal essays that provide an unusually intimate insight into the scientific process. This book will be essential, and fascinating, reading for all those with an interest in immunology, and in the life sciences in general. For students and teachers, this will provide the background necessary for a true understanding of immunology, and to place subsequent discoveries in perspective.

Darwin Copernicus Galileo Scientists Who Revolutionized The World

Author: Le Mono
Editor: Lulu Press, Inc
ISBN: 1329567625
File Size: 48,15 MB
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During those centuries, the attempt to ascertain the truths of physical science outside of theology was very seldom ventured. Questions that the priest could not answer he declared were forbidden of man to know; and when men attempted to find out for themselves they were looked upon as heretics.